Pictograms refer to the pictures, or cartoons. Under this type of diagram appropriate pictures are drawn to represented the quantitative data relating to a phenomenon. The number, and size of the pictures are determined in proportion to the volume of the various figures to be represented. For proper drawal of a picture, the following essential points are to be kept in view :
Essentials of a picture
- The picture to be drawn should be true representative of the phenomenon. Thus the data relating to population should be represented through figures of human beings, and the data relating to aeroplanes should be represented through the symbols of aeroplanes.
- They should be simple to understand, and self-explanatory.
- Changes in number of data should be shown by changes in number of pictures rather than by changes in their size.
- They should be of general nature.
- They should be clear, precise and attractive.
- They should suit to the size of the paper in hand, and should not be too large nor too small in size.
- They should be clearly distinguishable from each other.
- They should be drawn artistically on the principles of good designs established by the fine and applied arts.
Merits and Demerits
A pictographic representation of data has certain merits, and demerits which can be outlined as under:
(i) They are very attractive and appealing eyes.
(ii) They stimulate interest in the information represented.
(iii) They are very impressive, and catching, They leave a long lasting impression in the mind of an onlooker.
(i) They are very difficult to draw, and their construction needs specialized knowledge in the fine arts.
(ii) They give only a bird’s-eye-view of a problem and not the detailed information about it. The following are the illustrations of some pictorial presentation of data.